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Semenov V.M., Pashinskaya E.S., Pobyarzhin V.V., Subbotina I.A., Shlyakhtunov E.A., Veremey I.S., Semenov S.V.
Immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic methods of the oncologic diseases diagnosing (literature review)
Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University, Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus

Vestnik VGMU. 2017;16(2):15-25.

It is known that for conducting scientific and clinical researches in modern biology and medicine a great variety of methods and techniques and sometimes their combinations are used. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular-genetic methods belong to those ones that prevail in the studying of pathoanatomical, morphophysiologic, oncomorphologic and biological aspects of the organism’s vital activity, Several main fields for the IHC methods use may be singled out in modern diagnosing practice. Primarily, these are the studies of human tumors aimed at the determination of histogenesis of undifferentiated neoplasms, distant metastases as well as the differentiation of different tissue components, making up complex tumors. Secondarily, they are used with the aim of prognostic evaluation of the further course of the disease and the treatment administration.
Molecular-genetic markers (MGM) are called polymorphic signs, revealed by means of DNA- and RNA- technologies at the level of nucleotide DNA sequence for a definite gene or any other chromosome site. The investigation of molecular-genetic markers is a wide field of scientific-research activity and has a paramount importance for the clinical picture. MGM are often determined when structural and functional damages in the genome of the tumor cell are suspected, because genome instability is the main tumoral property. Such damages lead to the change in the expression of genes, regulating cell cycle, metastatic and invasive activity of the cells. As a result, the expression of genes, coding adhesive proteins and neoangiogenesis activity factors changes, inactivation of genes-suppressors occurs, telomerase in tumoral cells activates. Genome damages can lead to the development of both hereditary oncologic syndromes and sporadic tumors.
Key words: tumors, methods, oncogene, test-systems.


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Information about authors:
Semenov V.M. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor, head of the Chair of Infectious Diseases, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University;
Pashinskaya E.S. – Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor of the Chair of Medical Biology & General Genetics, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University;
Pobyarzhin V.V. – Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor, doctoral candidate of the Chair of Infectious Diseases, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University;
Subbotina I.A. – Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, associate professor, doctoral candidate of the Chair of Infectious Diseases, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University;
Shlyakhtunov E.A. – Candidate of Medical Sciences, associate professor of the Chair of Oncology with the courses of Radiation Diagnosing & Radiation Therapy of the Faculty for Advanced Training & Retraining, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University;
Veremey I.S. – senior laboratory assistant of the Chair of Infectious Diseases, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University;
Semenov S.V. – postgraduate of the Chair of Epizootology, Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine.

Correspondence address: Republic of Belarus, 210023, Vitebsk, 27 Frunze ave., Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University, Chair of Infectious Diseases. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра. – Vyacheslav V. Pobyarzhin.

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