The role of microflora and its capability of forming biofilm in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis
Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University, Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus
Vestnik VGMU. 2017;16(5):127-135.
Objectives. To study the etiology of chronic periodontitis and the process of biofilm formation by microorganisms isolated from periodontal pockets.
Material and methods. 97 patients with chronic periodontitis and 30 persons without any periodontal disease were examined. All patients with chronic periodontitis were divided into 3 groups, depending on the severity of their disease.
Results. The analysis of the etiology of multi-species subgingival microbial biofilm in the detection of genetic markers of parodontopathogenic bacteria confirms the high incidence of parodontopathogenic species of the 1st – the 2nd order in chronic periodontitis (96%) compared with the control group (not more than 20%). An increase in the species diversity and in the number of microorganisms in the associations in the subgingival and supragingival biofilms has been established, which leads to the microbiocenosis disturbance. The analysis of the opportunistic microflora showed an increase in the specific gravity of resident microorganisms in the supragingival biofilm with chronic periodontitis. The average mass of biofilms formed by microorganisms is significantly higher (p <0,001) in periodontal tissues with great severity of chronic periodontitis.
Сonclusions. The microorganisms that form the biofilm are more pathogenic and cause a more serious inflammatory process in the periodontal tissues. Microorganisms whose capability to form biofilms under in vitro conditions is more pronounced, possess a greater power to initiate a severe inflammatory process in periodontium. The use of dynamic conditions reduces the formation of biofilms by microorganisms or does not affect this process under static ones. With a mixed biofilm, the following regularities can be observed: the average biofilm production level in comparison with the isolates of its constituents; a decrease in the weight of the biofilm, probably due to antagonistic interactions between the species forming it; an increase of biofilm formation in symbiotic interactions.
Key words: biofilm, chronic periodontitis, microorganisms, parodontopathogens.
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Information about authors:
Kalchanava N.E. – postgraduate of the Chair of Clinical Microbiology, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University.