"vestnik vsmu" 2012 vol. 11 №4
Kulikov V.A., Grebennikov I.N.
The role of vitamins D and K in the development of vascular calcification and atherosclerosis
Abstract. In this literature review the results of recent scientific researches on the role of vitamins D and K in the development mechanisms of vascular calcification and atherosclerosis are summarized. The received experimental and clinical data prove the presence of the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases development. However recommendations with respect to the routine use of dietary vitamin D supplements for primary or secondary prevention of atherosclerosis are still premature. The role of vitamin K in the development of atherosclerotic lesions of vessels in the human beings remains not clearly understood.
Gusakova E.A., Gorodetskaya I.V.
Stress and proteolytic enzymes of lysosomes
Abstract. The analysis of literature data was made to reveal the influence exerted by stressors impact on the activity of lysosomal proteases. It has been found that the action of various stimuli generally leads to the increase of protease activity, the severity of which is tissue specific and depends on the stressor type.
Mechanisms of stressors influence on the activity of proteolytic enzymes are: 1) reduction of lysosomal membranes stability, 2) suppression of protease inhibitors, 3) disturbance of the structure and functional state of the liver, and 4) the activation of lipid peroxidation.
The mechanisms to increase animals physical endurance with iodine-containing thyroid hormones in the conditions of various stresses
Abstract. The purpose of this work is generalization of the results of researches aimed at studying the organism`s thyroid status influence on physical endurance of animals in the conditions of various origin stress and determination of its mechanisms. It has been established that mechanisms of increase of animals physical endurance with iodine-containing thyroid hormones under stress are: activating influence on heat shock proteins synthesis and heart contractile function, antioxidant action, increase of substrate and energetic providing of contractile act of skeletal muscles, regulation of endocellular concentration of calcium ions and the level of their cells excitability.
Lazuko S.S., Solodkov A.P.
The increase in sensitivity of aortal rings to nitroglycerine after combined impact of stress
Abstract. The aim of the research is to study the combined impact of immobilization stress and hyperglycemia on sensitivity of smooth muscle cells of aortal vessels of rats to nitroglycerine as NO donator.
The experiments were conducted on preparations of isolated ring of rat aorta with removed endothelium. The combined impact of hyperglycemia and immobilization stress is accompanied by a more considerable increase in sensitivity of smooth muscle cells of aortal vessels to exogenous NO activator nitroglycerine compared to the impact of hyperglycemia or immobilization stress only. This fact can indicate the summation of negative effect of NO hyper-production which is typical of hyperglycemia and immobilization stress with respect to the activity of soluble guanylate cyclase (s-GC) of smooth muscle cells of rat aortal vessels.
Histology, cytology, embryology
Myadelets V.O., Myadelets O.D.
Morphologic markers of psoriasis in the exacerbation stage localized in the dermis (morphometric study)
Abstract. The skin of the patients with psoriasis in the exacerbation stage (6 cases) was investigated. Biopsy material obtained from volunteer patients by means of trepanobiopsy was used for histological study. Histological material was treated by the conventional method. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin by Hart`s, by Нeidenhain`s, by Ritter-Olesson`s and by silver methods. The severity degree was investigated with the use of 10 pathological signs of psoriasis in the dermis by means of morphometric methods. As a result of the study the quantitative data about the severity of the following morphological features of psoriasis in the exacerbation stage were received: edema of papillary and reticular dermal layers; changes in the dermal and hypodermal vessels; the density of infiltrates in the papillary dermal layer; the density of infiltrates in the reticular dermal layer in the region of the subpapillary plexus; the variety of cellular infiltration of the dermis; the distribution of the infiltrates in the deep layers of the reticular dermis; the density of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis; changes of tinctorial properties of the ground substance of the dermis and hypodermis; the degree of papillomatosis severity.
Frolova A.V., Generalov I.I.
The comparative analysis of antimicrobial activity of metallic nanoparticles
Abstract. Samples of synthetic and natural fabrics with different metallic nanoparticles were investigated as promising materials for the development of dressings to be used for local treatment of wound infections. The comparative analysis of antimicrobial and antimycotic activity of viscose, organza, polyester, cotton coated with nanoparticles of copper, silver and zinc was made in vitro. The viscose fabric with silver plating was found to possess unlike all other samples a significantly greater antimicrobial effect against the studied gram-positive and gram-negative microflora as well as yeast-like fungus C. albicans. The most sensitive to all the samples studied turned out to be gram-positive pathogen Bacillus subtilis.
Mastykova E.K., Konorev M.R., Zablodsky A.N., Matveyenko M.E.
The incidence of erosive esophagitis in adolescents and adults with gastric metaplasia of the esophagus mucosa
Abstract. The incidence of erosive esophagitis and gastric metaplasia of the mucous membrane of the esophagus in adolescents and adults with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was determined. Besides the occurrence frequency of erosive esophagitis and gastric metaplasia combination was compared in these groups of patients.
The conducted study revealed that the occurrence frequency of erosions in adolescents with GERD was 64,7% and that of gastric metaplasia made up 41,2%, in adults 52% and 50%, respectively. It was also determined that erosions with gastric metaplasia of the esophagus mucosa were more frequent in adults (84%) in comparison with adolescents (17,6%). And erosive esophagitis was more frequent in adolescents without gastric metaplasia (47%) in comparison with adults (20%).
There were no reliable differences in the incidence of erosions and gastric metaplasia among adolescents and adults.
Psoriatic arthritis: epidemiology, socio-economic significance, etiopathogenesis
Abstract. Psoriatic arthritis belongs to the group of spondyloarthropathies and is a chronic, progressive, destructive, inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis. There are a number of objective difficulties of timely verification of psoriatic arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis is the subject of lots of studies. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, the clinical picture, the principles of differential diagnosis, classification, diagnostic criteria of the disease are investigated nowadays. Great attention is paid to the treatment of psoriatic arthritis, the use of new drugs, biological agents in particular. This review of modern literature data is devoted to epidemiology, socio-economic importance and etiopathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis.
Traumatology and orthopedics
The results of triple pelvic osteotomy in hip joint dysplasia in adolescents
Abstract. Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) in hip joint dysplasia in adolescents is a highly efficient intervention enabling restoration of joint stability, improvement of joint surfaces congruence and centricity of hip head, prevention or slowing down of coxarthrosis development.
As a result of this intervention the Sharp`s angle amounted to 33° versus 50°, the Wiberg`s angle amounted to 43° versus 7°, the angle of the anterior support averaged 36° versus 12° (from 10° to 23°), the angle of the vertical congruence made up on the average 91° versus 71° before the operation.
Owing to high resolution of the suggested TPO technique the necessity to perform hip osteotomy arises only in those cases when the collodiaphyseal angle exceeds 150-155°, and the angle of antetorsion – 50°.
Clinically the intervention resulted in disappearance or reduction of pain syndrome and improvement of the ability to move in the majority of cases during the period from 8 to 17 years (on the average – 10 years and 3 months). Excellent clinical results were obtained in 44%, good – in 44%, satisfactory – in 10% and unsatisfactory – in 2% of cases.
Psychiatry and narcology
Razvodovsky Y.E., Vinitskaya A.G., Lelevich V.V., Svirkunov I.V., Kirpichenko A.A.
Socio-epidemiological correlates of drug consumption in Vitebsk region
Abstract. In this article the socio-epidemiological correlates of registered psychoactive substances (PAS) abusers in Vitebsk region are discussed. It was shown that in the period from 2007 to 2011 the number of registered PAS abusers decreased by 6,75%. The opiate abusers constitute the largest share among all registered PAS abusers. The socio-epidemiological correlates of PAS abuse include low level of education and also unemployment. The majority of PAS abusers were registered on the basis of information from law enforcement authorities. This fact suggests an active role of Ministry of Internal Affairs staff members in the prevention of PAS abuse. The results of the present study might be useful for the elaboration of harm reduction programs.
The use of Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. within the confines of the doctrine of adaptogenes
Abstract. The invention by Lazarev and his disciples of a special state of non-specifically increased resistance of the body is one of the most important events in medicine and physiology of theXX century. This state was discovered to appear and enhance during the introduction of certain substances called adaptogenes into the body. By the present moment more than a hundred of the plants with adaptogenic properties have been discovered. Among them Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. can be highlighted. This plant is widely spread in the flora of the Republic of Belarus. For the last decade the Belarusian scientists have been actively doing some researches in the fields of biochemistry,pharmacology and the ways ofpractical useofFilipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. In 2008 the plant was inscribed in thepharmacopoeia of the Republic of Belarus.
Gayduk A.V., Bizunok N.A.
Pharmacodynamic potential of combinations of atypical antidepressant mianserine and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors
Abstract. A response to a single antidepressant medication is generally obtained in about two thirds of patients with first-diagnosed depression in whom the severity of disease symptoms decreases, but only in 30% of them remission is stable. One of the most promising strategies for increasing therapeutic efficacy is the use of synergic antidepressant combinations. Thus combinations of atypical antidepressant mianserine and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) widely used in clinical practice are paid great attention to.
The purpose of the present study was to estimate pharmacodynamic potential of combinations of atypical antidepressant mianserine and SSRIs (fluvoxamine, sertraline and paroxetine) in forced swimming test (FST) carried out on male CBA mice and in tail suspension test (TST) carried out on male C57Bl/6 mice.
In both tests mianserine does not change characteristics of «quick» effects of SSRIs on animals’ behaviour. The analysis of pharmacodynamic profiles of antidepressants suggests that the combined use of SSRIs and mianserine may improve tolerability and safety of initial pharmacotherapy for depression.
Pedagogics and psychology of higher school
Glushanko V.S., Gruznevich A.P., Artyomenko N.A., Alfyorova M.V.
Integrating function of teaching of the discipline «Public health and public health service» in the context of modern problems of public health service modernization
Abstract. Problems and negative challenges of modern world space compel the state systems of public health services to reform them with the purpose of realizing «Health for all» concept, ensuring medical services availability and over-all coverage of the population with medicosanitary aid. The society needs the increased intake of the medical and pharmaceutical personnel of the new generation capable to successfully perform reformatory and administrative functions, to increase and model their professional competence. Educational establishments of medical profile have to cope with the task of educational process optimization in accordance with the international standards set with respect to educational technologies and the quality of prepared specialists. Thus, the integrating function of the discipline «Public health and public health service» allows to improve the quality of education of native and foreign students.
Students` stress tolerance and achievement motivation
Abstract. The aim of this investigation is to study the achievement motivation as a factor that determines stress tolerance of boys and girls. The relationships between achievement motivation and stress tolerance, and the impact of gender factor on these relationships were studied in 107 students.
The predominance of success achievement motivation with an average level of stress tolerance was revealed. However, this kind of motivation is prevalent in boys. The predominance of motivation to succeed, coupled with an average level of stress tolerance is considered by us as a favourable factor of successful studying at a higher school. The results of the conducted study are necessary in order to create a psychological model of stress tolerance, on the basis of which it will be possible to carry out the work with students aimed at understanding and transformation of the structure of stress tolerance and the factors conditioning it.
Kuzmenko T.V., Shmakov A.P., Zuyev N.N.
Medical aid in occupied Vitebsk in the eye – witness accounts and documents
Abstract. Years change and obliterate the events of the Second World War. The witnesses of those events die. This work is based on the recollections of witnesses and documents of special editions about the war. The defense of Vitebsk lasted from the 28th of June till the 11th of July 1941. Many residents were evacuated or perished. By 1943 the city had 33,000 out of 180,000 inhabitants of the pre-war period. The number of hospitals and medical staff dramatically reduced on the occupied territory. Medical aid was still provided to the citizens of occupied Vitebsk at the cost of heroic efforts of the remaining physicians Murashko-Makhnov, Okulovich, Zhurinskaya, Bogdanova, Prudkovskaya and others. Restoration of medical service in the liberated city and its further development are connected with the names of Denisova, Lyzikov, Birkan, Sobolevskaya, Namestnikov and many others. May their memory live for ever.