Myadelets O.D.1, Lebedeva E.I.1, Myadelets N.Y.2
Phosphatase-positive stem cells of the skin of white rats in the age aspect
1Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University, Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus
2Vitebsk State Medical College, Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus
Vestnik VGMU. 2018;17(2):37-46.
Introduction. The study of the skin stem cells is difficult due to the lack of reliable criteria. Immunohistochemical methods are reliable, however, they require expensive reagents. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AP) is one of the indicators of totipotency of embryonic stem cells and pluripotency of regional stem cells. The amount of works devoted to the description of the AP-positive cells in the human skin is not enough.
Objectives. To identify stem cells in the skin of white rats in the process of postnatal ontogenesis with the help of AP.
Material and methods. The material of the study was full-layer skin flaps from the interblade area of white rats of different ages: newborns, of 7, 10, 16, 36 and 90 days. Paraffin sections were prepared from paraffin-embedded material, they were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, PAS-reaction and orsein. Slices were prepared from the frozen in liquid nitrogen material, then the activity of AP was detected in them by the method of M. Burstone.
Results. It has been established that in newborn animals, AP-positive cells are not numerous in the epidermis and hair follicles, but the activity of the enzyme is high in the microvessels of the dermis. For the first time the enzyme is detected in fair quantities in the epidermis and hair follicles, in 7-day animals. On the 16th and 36th day of their life, the activity of the enzyme in the structures of the skin reaches its maximum. In the epidermis, the enzyme is found not only in the keratinocytes of the basal, but also in the prickle-cell layer. The maximal activity of the enzyme was also detected in the epithelium of the hair follicles, bulb of the hair follicle and in the dermal papilla of the hair.
Conclusions. AP is a reliable criterion in the identification of all types of regional stem cells of the skin. In postnatal ontogenesis, essential changes of the AP-positive skin stem cells (SC) have been revealed. In parallel with the growth of morphogenetic processes in the epidermis, the appearance and increase in the number of SC, maturation of the basement membrane occurs, in which areas are found where there is no staining. They coincide with the areas of formazan absence in the epidermis while detecting AP. In the anagen phase AP-positive intercellular matrix, surrounding the follicles, appears. Hair papillae and cells of the hair bulb (matrix) in the anagen phase demonstrate the maximal activity of AP.
Key words: skin; regional stem cells; alkaline phosphomonoesterase.
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Information about authors:
Myadelets O.D. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor, head of the Chair of Histology, Cytology & Embryology, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University;
Lebedeva E.I. – Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor of the Chair of Histology, Cytology & Embryology, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University;
Myadelets N.Y. – lecturer of histology and genetics, Vitebsk State Medical College.