"vestnik vsmu" 2011 vol. 10 №4
Deykalo V.P., Mastykov A.N., Boloboshko K.B.
Blood platelet - rich plasma in the treatment of diseases and lesions of the locomotor system
Abstract. This literature review demonstrates the main possibilities of the application of blood platelet - rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of patients suffering from different damages and diseases of the locomotor system. The presence of adhesion molecules, cytokines and thrombocyte growth factors in PRP allows to use it for the acceleration of repair processes in the damaged bone and soft tissues. Safety, simplicity of· preparing and the efficacy of application contribute to the active use of this biotechnique in clinical medicine. But in spite of considerable amount of· studies of PRP· clinical efficacy, the majority of them are retrospective, pilot studies with small sample sizes and the absence in some cases of control groups. Thus further controlled studies in this field are urgent to understand better this method of treatment.
The possibility of laboratory prognosis of cardiovascular diseases therapy efficacy on the basis of pharmacogenetic tests
Abstract. The review is devoted to the analysis of data concerning the influence of genes polymorphisms involved in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs on the efficacy and safety of treatment for diseases of the cardiovascular system. The information about the genetic aspects of individual sensitivity to statins,· beta-adrenoblockers, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is presented. The prospects and benefits of pharmacogenetic tests use are also discussed.
Korenevskaya N.A., Gorodetskaya I.V., Yevdokimova O.V., Gusakova E.A.
The dynamics of hypophysial-thyroid system response in case of chronic stress influence in rats with intact and changed thyroid status
Abstract. In experiments on 282 adult male Wistar rats it has been determined that keeping 18 animals in every cage of the size 20*30*40 cm during 2 months results in progressive decreasing of the concentration in blood of total and free thyroxin and triiodothyronine fractions· and adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone level increasing. After 3 months total and free Т3 content does not change, and total and free Т4 content decreases further in the absence of thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration increase. Hypothyrosis (intragastral 1,2 mg/100 g body weight mercazolil introduction during 14 days, then in half dose) contributes to a more rapid development under stress of disregulation process in the mechanism controlling thyroid hormones blood concentration, that leads to a greater reduction of their level. Thyroxin doses similar to physiological ones (3,0-5,0 mkg/kg body weight during 28 days, then in half dose) provide for conservation of feed-back mechanism under stress, that causes greater content of thyroid hormones in blood.
Shilin V.E., Okulich V.K., Bulavkin V.P.
Test-systems «ID-ENTER» and «AB-GRAM (-)» for determining the etiological role of gram-negative microorganisms and the spectrum of their antibiotic resistance in diabetic foot syndrome
Abstract. The so-called diabetic foot syndrome is one of diabetes complications; it is a kind of pathologic condition of feet associated with the pathology of peripheral nerves, macro- and microangiopathy, as well as with lesions of the bones, skin and soft tissues of the foot which result in bones destruction, or pyo-necrotic diseases of the feet and legs. The most important role in the etiological structure of this disease is played by the representatives of Enterobacteriaceae family and other gram-negative microorganisms, which more often occur in combinations.
We have determined the etiological structure of enterobacteria and other gram-negative microorganisms as causative agents of pyo-necrotic lesions in diabetic foot syndrome by means of test-systems «ID-ENT» and «AB-GRAM(-)» which were previously designed by our research group. We have also evaluated the spectrum of their antibiotic resistance· and worked out the schemes of empirical antibacterial treatment for this kind of pathology.
Antonysheva O.V., Kozlovsky V.I.
Cognitive disturbances in patients with arterial hypertension
Abstract. We examined 102 patients with the 2nd degree of arterial hypertension. It was determined that in patients with the 2nd degree of arterial hypertension during the hypertensive crisis the volume of operational memory and the concentration of attention are reduced and reliably differ from those in healthy controls. After the arresting of the hypertensive crisis the indices of operational memory and concentration of attention improve, but remain reliably lower than those in healthy people. In patients with the 2nd degree of arterial hypertension in the presence of cognitive disturbances during 3,7±0,7 years a significant increase in the incidence of cases of unstable angina pectoris, hospitalizations, and the total number of events is observed.
Sirotko O.V., Litvyakov A.M.
Diagnostic criteria of erosive lesions of the joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Abstract. Multiplane dynamic ultrasonic investigation of 594 joints of the hands: 69 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RА) and 30 persons of the control group was conducted. As a result of the analysis of the obtained data three kinds of erosions were revealed in RА: proliferatively caused (99%), simultaneous proliferative-inflammatory (96%) and inflammatory-destructive (89,6%). It follows that RА is a disease in which there is a combination of proliferation and· inflammatory character destruction.
Palguyeva А.Y., Litvyakov А.M.
Structural-functional (ultrasonic) characteristics of· the main arteries condition in rheumatoid and reactive arthritis
Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and the expression of functional and structural atherosclerotic character changes of the main arteries in rheumatoid and reactive arthritis, to collate the revealed changes with clinical features of joint pathology course, activity of the inflammatory process, indices of lipid spectrum of blood serum.
41 patients with reactive arthritis (ReA), 75 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 28 healthy subjects were studied. Ultrasonic investigation of the arterial vessels was performed with the reactive hyperemia test and measurement of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotids in all patients.
The occurrence frequency of atherosclerotic plaques in different vessels regions was determined. Arterial vessel state in this group of patients did not differ from that found in the control group. RA is accompanied by atherosclerotic changes of vessels: the disorder of functional state of endothelium, the increase of carotids IMT, and the lesion of arterial vessels by atherosclerotic plaques, which are detected in different vessels regions (carotids, abdominal part of the aorta, vessels of the lower limbs, and brachial arteries). In RA the functional state of endothelium and the carotids IMT are interconnected with duration of the disease, C-reactive protein level, Ritchie index, roentgenologic stage, presence of systemic manifestations of the disease and indices of blood serum lipid spectrum. The lesion of arterial vessels by atherosclerotic plaques is characteristic of patients with long-term duration of the disease, marked joint damage, high C-reactive protein level and is associated with the presence of systemic manifestations of the disease.
Obstetrics and gynecology
Divakova T.S., Mitskevich E.A., Tikhonova L.V.
Hormone profile of female patients with genitals prolapse and incontinence of urine
Abstract. Due to the increasing life expectancy the quality of life of women in peri- and postmenopause acquires great significance. Climacteric syndrome starting a sequence of pathological processes leads to the increased morbidity and mortality of female patients of able-bodied age. The aim of this study was to determine hormonal levels of female patients with genitals prolapse and incontinence of urine to optimize their surgical treatment.
The characteristic of indices of the cardiovascular system functional state in children and young sportsmen having often been ill with acute respiratory infections earlier
Abstract. The results of researches aimed at the determination of the cardiovascular system functional status of children and young sportsmen, kayaks and canoe oarsmen, having often been ill with acute respiratory infections earlier are presented. Frequent acute respiratory infections and connected with them pathological changes in the circulatory system influence the activity of heart functioning. The type of hemodynamic reaction to the dosed out physical activity was mainly of hyperkinetic character, both in children and in teen-agers, having often been ill with acute respiratory infections earlier, that may be regarded as effort syndrome of the cardiovascular system.
The characteristic of laboratory findings of the cardiovascular system state in children and young sportsmen having often been ill with acute respiratory infections earlier
Abstract. The results of researches aimed at determining the laboratory findings of the cardiovascular system state in children and young sportsmen, kayaks and canoe oarsmen, having often been ill with acute respiratory infections earlier, on selection for inclusion into sports sections are presented. In the majority of children and teen-agers, who had the· signs of cardiovascular system dysfunction, low levels of hemoglobin, high levels of general creatine phosphokinasе and aspartate aminotransferasе in blood before load were diagnosed. The contribution of genetic polymorphisms GSTT1 (del), GSTM1 (del), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), MTHFR (C677T) to the realization of cardiovascular pathology risk in young sportsmen having often been ill with acute respiratory infections earlier was also determined.
Changes of laboratory findings in acute, subacute and chronic pleurites
Abstract. Empyema of the chest is the severest complication of pneumonia developing on infecting of parapneumonic pleuritis. As patients` hospital stay is long, many of them become disabled and lose their ability to work, this problem becomes a social one. In the present article the results of examination of· 99· patients with acute, subacute and chronic pleural inflammatory process were analyzed. All of them were treated at the department of thoracic surgery of Vitebsk regional clinical hospital from November 2008 to July 2011.· All patients were divided into three groups: the first group consisted of persons who had acute pleural effusion (para- and metapneumonic pleuritis), the second group was made up of· those who had subacute pleural effusion, the third group included those persons who had chronic course of the disease (fibrothorax). This study was undertaken to analyze the main findings of total blood count and those of biochemical analysis and their clinical significance. An attempt was made to determine the interrelation between the degree of pleuritis chronicity and the changes in the laboratory findings of blood. Characteristic laboratory findings changes in patients with subacute and chronic variants of the course of pleural inflammation were determined.
Neurology and neurosurgery
Detection of mutations of rs2104286, rs12722489 and rs6897932 in IL2RA and IL7RA genes in patients with multiple sclerosis living in Gomel region
Abstract. We examined by means of the molecular-genetic method 70 patients with multiple sclerosis and 40· persons of the control group, in whom demyelinizing disease was excluded for the presence of single nucleotide substitutions in rs12722489, rs2104286 and rs6897932 of IL2RA and IL7RA genes and also for the purpose of establishing the possible connection of these genetic markers with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). The incidence of occurrence of· mutant homozygotes of alleles of rs12722489, rs2104286 and rs6897932 in genes IL2RA and IL7RA in patients with MS was determined and it made up: 1,43%, 5,71% and 11,43%, respectively, per thousand it will be 14, 57 and 114 cases, respectively. Among the persons of the control group homozygotes for mutant alleles of rs12722489 and rs2104286 (gene IL2RA) have been not found. The frequency of homozygous state occurrence for mutant allele rs6897932 (gene IL7RA) made up only one case for the whole control group (2,27%). This testifies to the significant impact of genetic changes in the studied genes in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Infectious and parasitic diseases
Zhiltsov I.V., Veremey I.S., Semenov V.M., Nebosko E.L.
Test-system «Biolactam» as an efficient means for detection of bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics
Abstract. We have elaborated the test system «BioLactam» enabling the registering of the level of beta-lactamase activity in biological substrates. In the present study we have evaluated the fundamental possibility of determining beta-lactamase activity of bacterial suspensions using the above mentioned test system; also we have made the analysis of the· conformity of the obtained results to the data of routine methods of bacteriological examination. It was determined that test system «BioLactam» may be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of beta-lactamase activity of bacterial suspensions, and the results of testing are in good conformity with those obtained by disk diffusion method. By means of test system «BioLactam» we can determine the following phenomena with the high level of reliability: 1) production of clinically significant quantities of beta-lactamases if the level of beta-lactamase activity of bacterial suspension amounts to >14,2%; 2) resistance to inhibitor-protected beta-lactams if the level of beta-lactamase activity of bacterial suspension amounts to >26,5%; 3) resistance to cephalosporins of the 3rd generation if the level of beta-lactamase activity amounts to >81,2%; 4) when used together with disk diffusion method – also the fact of the presence of non-enzymatic mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Test system «BioLactam» is optimal for determining the level of resistance of enterobacteria to beta-lactam antibiotics; it may be of limited use for determination of gram positive cocci resistance to the given preparations and doesn’t allow to directly differentiate ESBLs from ordinary beta-lactamases.
Psychiatry and narcology
The motives of alcohol consumption· by adolescents and young people with alcohol dependence problems
Abstract. In this article the results of multicentral clinical observational analytical study of 606 male subjects at the adolescent and young age of 14-25 years concerning the motives of alcohol use are presented. The main group of 398 persons suffering from alcohol dependence and the control group consisting of 208 persons without alcohol-related problems were examined. The primary role of personal motivation on using alcohol was determined. This type of motivation shows that modern adolescents and young people have inner psychological problems. Alcohol consumption is used as a primitive, and the simplest dysadaptive strategy of solving them. The results of the study may be used when developing a differentiated approach to preventive and rehabilitation work with this contingent.
Hygiene and ecology
Ivanov V.S., Cherkasova O.A.
Pollution of Vitebsk city soils with sulfates, nitrates and oil products
Abstract. The aim of this study was the inspection of soil cover of Vitebsk city to detect industrial pollution with such pollutants as sulfates, nitrates and oil products. For detection of the pollutants content in the soils of Vitebsk 173 soil samples taken in various areas of the city during the investigation period from 1999 to 2009 were analyzed. In these· samples sulfates, nitrates and oil products content, granulometric composition and acidity (pH) have been determined. The analysis of the obtained data has shown that the soil cover of Vitebsk on considerable territory is under the negative chemical influence mainly from the industrial complex (stationary sources) – pollution with sulfates and nitrates, and also vehicle emissions – pollution with oil products. Oil products are primary pollutants of Vitebsk soils in respect not only to local background values, but also to maximum concentration limit, nitrates and sulfates following them. The central part of the city is most polluted and represented by the separate strips extending from the west to the east that is caused by the specific character of industrial localization and the density of transportation network. Less polluted areas are situated on the city boundaries where there are fewer industrial enterprises and boiler-plants.
Ivanov V. S., Cherkasova O.A.
Boiler-plants as the source of soil pollution with heavy metals
Abstract. In this article the factual data obtained during the monitoring of the extent of Vitebsk soil pollution with heavy metals (Co, Cu, Pb) in 2009 are presented. In the soil samples the content of heavy metals has been determined because they are the main pollutants of urban environment. As a result of the conducted research it has been established, that burning of various kinds of fuel by boiler-plants is the chief source of pollution, and cobalt, lead, zinc, nickel, copper are the chief contaminants of Vitebsk soil in the vicinity of boiler-plants, manganese - to a lesser degree. The natural tendency in the reduction of the content of the studied elements in the soil with depth is traced. The dependence of elements distribution· in the soil upon the prevailing directions of winds has been revealed.
Grigoryeva S.V., Miklis N.I.
Antimicrobial activity of new washing, disinfecting and sterilizing solutions
Abstract. Modern disinfectants must meet several basic requirements: high microbiological efficiency, wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, safety for the application, compatibility with the processed materials, absence of an unpleasant smell, stability to organic loading, speed of action, simplicity on preparation, application, removal, economy. The purpose of the research was to study the antimicrobial activity of the washing and disinfecting catholyte solution and sterilizing neutral anolyte solution.
The results of the research have shown, that the received solutions caused complete destruction of standard test bacteria cultures both without the protein and with the protein loading in qualitative suspension test at 30 and 45 min exposition. The received solutions have also shown the high level of antimicrobial activity (RF>5) in quantitative suspension test without and with the protein loading. The sterilizing anolyte solution is the effective means for chemical disinfection of linen at 120 min exposition.
The types of dental photopolymerization devices and their comparative characteristic
Abstract. This article deals with main types of modern dental devices for luminous polymerization of filling materials: halogen photopolymerizers, plasma arc and laser devices for light-hardening, light diode photoinitiators, their advantages and disadvantages. The history of· composite filling materials development and their polymerization processes improvement is briefly presented. The structure, technical characteristics and the principle of modern dental photopolymerizers operation, comparative effectiveness during the restoration of hard tissues of the teeth, the peculiarities of their use and maintenance are described in detail. This publication also presents various types of photoactive lamps available at the market at present in which different research-and-development projects have been realized.
Krupchenko M.S, Kabanova S.A.
Clinical and laboratory indices and etiotropic treatment of pyo-inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region in children
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure, etiology of pyo-inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region in patients under 18 years of age and to suggest etiotropic treatment scheme.
We carried out a comparative analysis of the structure, etiology, and basic clinical and laboratory parameters in patients under 18 years of age who suffered from pyo-inflammatory processes of the head and neck and underwent treatment at the Vitebsk Regional Clinical Hospital (VRCH) in 1997-2001 and 2008-2010.
Due to the increasing number of children with inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region, growth of microorganisms strains resistant to antibiotics, atypical clinical reactions occurring in recent years, the study of this problem is a prerequisite for timely diagnosis and treatment of processes under investigation.
Kabanova A.A., Golubtsov V.V., Samsonova I.V., Bogdan N.Y.
The influence of «Mexibel» preparation on the tissue reparation in the experiment
Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to study experimentally the influence of «Mexibel» antioxidant on the tissue reparation in the treatment of pyo-inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region. The experiment was performed on 32 rabbits which were subject to submaxillary abscess. The animals were divided into two series: the control one (n=8) and the experimental one (n=24) treated with «Mexibel». The experiment was carried out in dynamics on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 7th and 11th days of treatment. The results demonstrated that the positive influence of «Mexibel» preparation on the inflammatory process arresting and the wound healing was observed in earlier terms (on the 7th day of treatment in the experimental series comparing with the 11th day in the control one).
Cardioprotective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in genetically conditioned arterial hypertension
Abstract. The effects of lisinopril, captopril and their combination with troxerutin on morphological, hemodynamic, biochemical markers in the rats with genetically conditioned arterial hypertension during 16 weeks of the usage were studied. The administration of low dose of lisinopril and its combination with troxerutin decreased body, heart mass, blood pressure, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and myocardium lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-1) levels. Captopril in its turn possessed greater safety compared with lisinopril. On the other hand only high dose of captopril protected the heart by lowering heart mass, mean arterial blood pressure, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and LDH, LDH-1 levels. Thus it is possible to conclude that different doses of lisinopril, captopril and their· combination with troxerutin possess cardioprotective effects.
Khodos O.A., Gidranovich L.G., Sachek M.M.
Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate and thiotriazolin influence on proteolysis in experiment «in vitro»
Abstract. The influence of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate and thiotriazolin on proteolysis in brain tissue extract and blood serum of rats was studied «in vitro». Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate and thiotriazolin were shown to have no effect on general proteinase activity, activity of a1-proteinase inhibitor,· a2-macroglobulin and activity of endogenous inhibitors of cysteinic proteinases in blood serum of rats in experiment «in vitro». Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate and thiotriazolin had no effect on activity of trypsin-like and cysteinic proteinases and their endogenous inhibitors in brain tissue extract of rats in experiment «in vitro» as well.
Pedagogics and psychology of higher school
Deykalo V.P., Konevalova N.Y., Gaydukova A.V., Gorodetskaya I.V., Kabanova S.A., Kugach V.V., Pristupa V.V., Taller V.A.
The educational process as the teachers and the students see it
Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude of students and teachers to the educational institution as a whole, to the organization of the educational process, vision of their future. All this is necessary to improve the educational process efficacy at the university and to perfect the practice of interaction between teachers and students, as well as to provide the university authorities with the information on various aspects of pedagogical activity of the teachers, needs and expectations of the students.
Individual determining factors of students` stress stability
Abstract. The aim of this study is to investigate anxiety and aggression as factors determining students` stress stability. In 348 students the following indicators of anxiety and aggression were examined: situational and personal anxiety, aggressiveness and hostility indices. The inverse relationship between the level of stress stability and the indices of aggression and anxiety has been revealed. A number of gender peculiarities of situational and personal anxiety, and also· of aggression and hostility indices have been determined. The results of this study are needed to elaborate the psychological model of· stress stability which will enable the work with students to reflect upon and transform the structure of· stress stability as well as the factors that cause it, and also for differential prediction of professional and· psychological fitness of the students for a number of medical specialties.
Pristupa V.V., Vasilenko N.I.
The overseas students training faculty celebrates the 30th anniversary of its foundation
Abstract. This article is devoted to the significant date – the 30th anniversary of the foundation of the overseas students training faculty. The main steps of the formation and development of the training process of specialists in the field of medicine for foreign countries are described herein.