Kvaratskheliya A.G.1, Vasyanina K.A.2, Klochkova S.V.2, Atyakshin D.A.1, Alexeeva N.T.1, Nikityuk D.B.3, Usovich A.K.4
Morphological characteristic of the aggregated lymphoid nodules of the small intestine in the simulation of some factors of space flight
1Voronezh State Medical University Named after N. N. Burdenko, Voronezh, Russia
2The First Moscow State Medical University Named after I.M. Sechenov, Moscow, Russia
3The Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, Moscow, Russia
4Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University, Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus
Vestnik VGMU. 2017;16(2):43-50.
Objectives. To study the structural organization and morphological features of the aggregated lymphoid nodules of the small intestine in mice in case of the modelling of the combined action of several factors of space flight, as well as at different times after the end of these impacts.
Material and methods. The object of research was the aggregated lymphoid nodules of the ileum of male mice of the line F1 (CBAxC57BL6), their mass made up 20-23 g. The modelling of long-term combined effects of gamma-radiation and chemical substances mixture was performed. After the end of the impact, the peripheral immune structures were studied during the recovery period on the 14th, the 28th, the 60th and the 90th day. After the visual determination of the location of the lymphoid plaque of the ileum, longitudinal histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin as well as according to the methods of Van Gizon, Weigert and Mallory. By means of visual microscopy and morphometry the number and size parameters of aggregated lymphoid nodules were determined. The determination of the area, length, and width of lymphoid formations was performed on digital micrographs. The arithmetical mean of the lymphoid structures area and its error were determined. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed using Student’s t-test.
Results. Changes in the cellular composition of lymphoid tissue in the Peyer’s patches as a result of successive radiation and chemical impacts manifested themselves in the complete disappearance of the typical intercellular associations, lymphoblasts, mitotic cells and the reduction of lymphocytes count. The increase in the percentage of degenerative changes in the cells was observed. After the end of the successive radiative (during 63 days, the total dose 350 cGy) and chemical (vapors of acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol) impacts, the tendency to restore the structure of the group of lymphoid nodules was noticed only on the 90th day after the completion of the experiment, when the size and number of lymphoid nodules in their composition, the absolute number of cells of the lymphoid series and cellular composition of lymphoid tissue approximated to the control group.
Conclusions. It has been established that the aggregated lymphoid nodules of the ileum are characterized by high sensitivity to the sequential action of the radiation-chemical factor, which manifests itself in a decrease of the absolute number of cells of the lymphoid series, complete disappearance of typical intercellular associations, lymphoblasts, cells with mitosis, а decrease in the lymphocyte count. On the 90th day after the end of exposure to radiation and chemical factors there is a tendency to restore the structure of the aggregated lymphoid nodules, when the size and number of lymphoid nodules in their composition, the absolute number of cells of the lymphoid series and the cellular composition of the lymphoid tissue approximate to the control. However, the complete recovery of lymphoid plaques in these terms is not observed.
Key words: lymphoid organs, lymphoid nodules of the small intestine, space flight factors, chemical exposure.
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Information about authors:
Kvaratskheliya A.G. – Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor of the Chair of General Human Anatomy, Voronezh State Medical University Named after N.N. Burdenko;
Vasyanina K.A. – Candidate of Medical Sciences, senior teacher of the Chair of Human Anatomy, the First Moscow State Medical University Named after I.M. Sechenov;
Klochkova S.V. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor of the Chair of Human Anatomy, the First Moscow State Medical University Named after I.M. Sechenov;
Atyakshin D.A. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, director of the Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Biology & Medicine, Voronezh State Medical University Named after N.N. Burdenko;
Alexeeva N.T. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, associate professor, head of the Chair of General Human Anatomy, Voronezh State Medical University Named after N.N. Burdenko;
Nikityuk D.B. – Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor, director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety;
Usovich A.K. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor, head of the Chair of Human Anatomy, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University.