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Makarenko E.V.
Gout: modern principles of diagnosing and treatment
Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University, Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus

Vestnik VGMU. 2017;16(6):7-22.

Gout is a systemic disease that occurs as a result of the deposition of sodium monourate crystals in tissues. The risk factors include hyperuricemia, genetic predisposition, age, male sex, overweight, dietary characteristics, alcohol consumption and other factors.
The clinical picture of gout includes asymptomatic hyperuricemia, acute gouty arthritis, intercritical period, and chronic tophaceous gout. The “gold standard” for the diagnosis is the identification of sodium monourate crystals in the synovial fluid or tophus aspirate using polarization microscopy. In addition, such imaging techniques as X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are used.
The basic principles of managing patients with gout comprise arresting acute gout attacks, treatment of chronic gout and comorbidities, as well as the prevention of exacerbations. Treatment measures include adherence to diet, life style changes and the use of medicines to reduce serum uric acid levels to target values. This leads to the dissolution of sodium monourate crystals and prevents the exacerbation of the disease.
Key words: gout, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, classification criteria, treatment recommendations.


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Information about authors:
Makarenko E.V. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor of the Chair of Internal Medicine No. 2 of the Faculty for Advanced Training & Retraining, Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University.

Correspondence address: Republic of Belarus, 210023, Vitebsk, 27 Frunze ave., Vitebsk State Order of Peoples’ Friendship Medical University, Chair of Internal Medicine No. 2 of the Faculty for Advanced Training & Retraining. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра. – Elena V. Makarenko.

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